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Austérité en Europe
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Danyves
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MessagePosté le: Jeu 6 Déc - 12:33 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

Osborne insists rich will lose greater share of income
Last updated 12 minutes ago

Chancellor dismisses claim that poor will bear brunt of fresh cuts announced in autumn statement


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Publicité






MessagePosté le: Jeu 6 Déc - 12:33 (2012)    Sujet du message: Publicité

PublicitéSupprimer les publicités ?
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MessagePosté le: Jeu 6 Déc - 20:13 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

 Starbucks paiera des impôts - lemonde.fr
Starbucks va payer des impôts en Angleterre.


Lire sur LeMonde.fr


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MessagePosté le: Ven 7 Déc - 12:32 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

Les trois limites du "modèle allemand"
07/12 | 07:00 | Thibaut Madelin 
 
Les performances de l'économie allemande forcent l'admiration en Europe. Un modèle dont il faut s'inspirer sans aller jusqu'à l'imiter. 


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MessagePosté le: Ven 7 Déc - 13:37 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

Surprise :

L'OIT s'alarme de l'évolution des salaires
07/12 | 12:00 | mis à jour à 12:24 | Richard Hiault 
 
L'accord tacite voulant que la part des salaires et la part des revenus du capital dans la valeur ajoutée soient stables semble rompu au détriment des premiers. 


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MessagePosté le: Ven 7 Déc - 16:17 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

From GLOBAL ECONOMY 10:46amBundesbank cuts German growth forecastRevised figures reflect weakening resilience to eurozone crisis

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MessagePosté le: Ven 7 Déc - 17:50 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

UK closer to triple-dip recession
Manufacturing output fell far faster than expected in October, putting AAA credit rating under more pressure
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MessagePosté le: Ven 7 Déc - 19:20 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

Allemagne : la Bundesbank n'écarte plus une récession
07/12 | 13:35 | Claude Fouquet 
La Banque centrale a revu ses prévisions de croissance pour 2012 et 2013. La production industrielle a reculé de 2,6 % en octobre, et atteint son plus bas niveau de l'année. 


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MessagePosté le: Dim 9 Déc - 10:49 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

Italy
From WORLD 12:48amMonti announces intention to resign
©ReutersItaly’s technocrat leader will stand down after budget is passed
From WORLD 5:40pmBerlusconi plans return to politicsItaly’s former leader intends to run again as PM in March


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MessagePosté le: Dim 9 Déc - 10:52 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

INTERNATIONAL 
Mario Monti prêt à jeter l'éponge
09/12 | 03:22 | mis à jour à 09:05 | Pierre de Gasquet 
 
Face à la décision du parti de Silvio Berlusconi de lui retirer son soutien, Mario Monti a fait part au Quirinal de son intention de remettre sa démission dès l'adoption du projet de budget 2013. Ce qui pourrait avancer les élections en février ou en mars. 


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MessagePosté le: Dim 9 Déc - 11:01 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

08 décembre 2012 à 23:03 
MARIO MONTI ANNONCE QU'IL DÉMISSIONNERA UNE FOIS LE BUDGET APPROUVÉ

Le président du Conseil italien Mario Monti, le 15 février 2012 à Strasbourg 
Le président du Conseil italien Mario Monti a annoncé samedi au président Giorgio Napolitano qu'il avait l'intention de présenter sa démission "irrévocable" une fois approuvée la loi de stabilité budgétaire, a indiqué dans un comm… 


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MessagePosté le: Dim 9 Déc - 17:36 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant




Generation Rent: why millions are locked out of owning homes
Soaring property prices and a mortgage famine are having a radical social impact on the way renters live their life

The Observer invited readers to share their experiences of renting in the UK. Read a selection of comments on our interactive map and add your stories here




Sisters Elspeth, centre, and Kirsten Reid, who rent homes in Bristol, with Kirsten's twin sons, Callan and Ross, 15. Photograph: Stephen Shepherd for the Observer

Andrew Visser's four-bedroom home in the historic village of Mangotsfield near Bristol, with its views over rolling fields, is just the sort of place he had hoped to raise his two young children. Yet, despite earning a good salary as a software specialist, this 39-year-old does not own the house and sees no prospect of doing so.
Andrew and his wife Amy belong to Generation Rent, an army of millions, all locked out of home ownership in Britain. They are among 60,000 households who rent privately in the Bristol area, more than at any time since the second world war. Rents are being hiked up as demand outstrips supply and the average age of a first-time buyer in the city has risen to 37.
Andrew said: "We moved back to the UK from the US two years ago and had no savings or home equity. I make a good living and could afford to pay a mortgage but the down payment is a problem. I'd need a deposit of £40,000 to £50,000 to buy a similar home to the one we are renting."
It is a situation replicated across the country where a major transformation is taking place in the housing market and renting is becoming the new norm. The number of households renting in the private sector has more than doubled since the mid-90s, from 8% to 17%, according to Shelter. Traditionally the private rental market was mainly the preserve of students and young professionals but in recent years they have been joined by ever increasing numbers of young families and people in their 30s, 40s and 50s. Of households renting privately, one-third are families and nearly half are over 35, with one in three aged over 45.
Most of these would like to buy – 86% want to own their own home, according to the British Social Attitude Survey – but are stuck in rented accommodation for the foreseeable future.
This week, census figures are expected to show a marked drop in home ownership and a huge increase in the proportion of renters from 2001-2011. As reported in the Observer today, an IPPR report has just revealed the extent of the thwarted aspirations and shelved ambitions among Britain's frustrated renters. How have we got here? And what can be done?
Credit: Observer Graphics. Source: Shelter
Stagnating wages and the rising cost of living make it impossible to save the tens of thousands of pounds needed for a downpayment, especially when you're paying rent as well. Around 70% of first-time buyers now have help from the "bank of mum and dad", according to the Council of Mortgage Lenders, often thanks to parents remortgaging.
Beside a mortgage famine, there are several other reasons behind the emergence of Generation Rent, namely sky-high house prices, a housebuilding slump, an ageing population and past government housing policies. The number of social housing units has fallen from 5m in 1982, or 30% of the housing market, to 3.85m or 17% of all homes – creating more demand for private rentals.
Roger Harding, head of policy and research at Shelter, explains: "There's a lack of housing stock, which started in the 1980s with council house sell-offs and councils not being able to reinvest the money in housing; then not enough was built under successive governments. Labour spent a lot on improving the condition of existing social housing stock but didn't start building new houses until the credit crunch was kicking in.
"It's a generational thing. Two-thirds of us are still homeowners. One-third of all householders own their homes outright (mostly those over 60); one-third have a mortgage and one-third rent (privately or in social housing).
"What's clear is that the next generation is going to really struggle to get a stable or affordable home, no matter how hard they work or save. While it used to be a reasonable expectation for parents that their children would be better off than them, when it comes to housing things are moving backwards."
Between 2001 and 2011 wages increased by 29% while house prices increased by 94%. In 2001, the average price of a home was £121,769, 7.4 times an average individual salary of £16,557. In 2011, average house prices are £236,518, or 11.1 times an average individual salary of £21,330.
Harding added: "Even if young families aspire to be homeowners, the fact is they are renting now and will be for at least five years. We need to build an awful lot of homes to reverse the trend, about 250,000 a year."
Britain is traditionally seen as a nation of homeowners, to the extent that it appears to have become ingrained in our national psyche. Following Margaret Thatcher's vision of a "property-owning democracy", rates of home ownership grew until 2002 when 69.7% of households owned their own home. By 2010 this had shrunk to 64.7%.
Right now, Andrew Visser is glad he hasn't got a mortgage. Last week he heard he was being made redundant for the second time this year. "The job market is too fragile to commit to paying for a house in a specific location when you might have to move for work. I wouldn't dream of placing a housing millstone around my neck," he said.
For many, home ownership is still an aspiration, often because of the difficulties they encounter renting. The Observer asked readers for their experiences of the private rental market, prompting hundreds of responses on our website. Problems with renting range from the quality of accommodation and the frustration of not being able to make improvements to unpredictable rent increases. Standard tenancies offer little security – typically renters have an assured shorthold tenancy, usually 12 months, then a rolling contract (in which the tenant can give one month notice and landlord two months) – and millions worry about their contract ending before they are ready to move. According to theEnglish Housing Survey, 35% of private renters moved house in 2010-11 compared to 3% of people with a mortgage.
Elspeth Reid, 54, would love her own place in Bristol. In 2008 she returned from a spell working in Andalucia. She owns a flat in Spain which she can't sell and, until she does, she has to rent. She had a bad first experience of renting – "It was hell! It was cold (poor insulation) and incredibly noisy" – but she now lives in a two-bedroom late Victorian house in the south of the city.
Elspeth, a financial director, said: "It is a lovely place to live in with a strong sense of community. There are a lot of people in the area who rent. Even if I could sell my flat and get a deposit I would struggle to buy in this area because the prices are so high. I've got lots of friends and family around – my sister and her twin sons rent nearby and we moved my parents into sheltered accommodation here. I have a lovely landlady and I'm allowed to decorate as I please and have my cat Charlie, which really improves my quality of life.
"But my big fear is that my landlady will decide to sell the house and I will have to move. I have no reason to suppose that she will but it does keep me awake at night quite often."
There are plenty of complaints about letting agents. The more unscrupulous ones "churn" tenants – that is, raise rents suddenly so fees can be charged for drawing up new contracts, or, if the tenant leaves, the agent makes more money for finding new tenants.
Rosa Beard, 26, an editor at a publishing firm in Bristol, had a bad experience of renting before moving to her current flat in the Stokes Croft area with her boyfriend James Flindall, also 26. Of her last place in Clifton, she said: "Mould covered the back walls of our flat. They turned black. The damp was so bad, the broadband cables running through one room eroded, cutting off our internet. We had respiratory problems. We also needed the windows to be replaced because so many were cracked."
After a year, building work began on the top floor. "They ripped up the roof to build new flats, but while the roof was off, there was torrential rain. Our flat flooded in a number of places. We told the company that owned the flats, but they did nothing." After a number of months paying half rent, they moved out and after much wrangling they got their deposit back.
For now Rosa is happy renting and loves the arty vibe of the area, with its coffee shops and bars. In four or five years' time, however, she would like to buy but finds it impossible to save for a deposit. "So much of what we earn goes on rent – all my friends are in the same situation. I want to buy because it gives you more freedom – you can keep a pet or change the carpets, paint the walls. You spend your 20s moving around but you want to settle somewhere eventually."
Andrew Visser has also rented a property which was sub-standard. "In my last place on the other side of Bristol, it was so cold and we had a baby and a two year old. The landlord wouldn't do anything and when we moved out he charged us for repainting the wall where the damp was we'd told him about. Eventually we split the cost. There needs to be more control of landlords. There need to be standards of how fast repairs will be made and local housing officers (the few there are) need more power to make sure houses are fit for purpose – not damp-ridden, unsafe holes."
Shelter said a third of homes for rent in Bristol do not meet basic standards and complaints against private landlords in Bristol have more than doubled in the past three years to 523 in 2011-12. A pilot licensing scheme for privately rented properties is planned to start in the city next spring. This would bring in money for the council to appoint officers to deal with rogue landlords. A similar scheme is being started in Newham in January.
An area that has been little explored is the social impact of renting. On Monday, the IPPR publishes a report looking at these effects. It found that renters feel less attached to their local neighbourhood communities, and are more likely to delay starting a family and building their careers because of the uncertainty around renting and the lack of affordable housing in areas where jobs might come up.
Rosa said: "It's hard to feel part of a community when you move around so much. You might only move 10 minutes away but it's a whole new neighbourhood. I don't want to yet, but if I did decide to start a family later on, I'd like to have my own home and be settled."
For those who are renting with children, there are many uncertainties. A report by Shelter in September, called A Better Deal, showed that more than a third of families renting (35%) worry about their landlord ending their contract before they are ready to move out. Almost half of families with children who are renting worry their landlord will put their rent up to a level they can't afford, and 28% of renters without children do not think it's suitable for bringing up kids. Almost half of families with children do not think of their private rented accommodation as "home".
Kirsten Reid, who has twin sons aged 15, rents a terrace house 15-20 minutes' walk from her sister Elspeth's house. The thought of perhaps having to move one day does play on her mind. Her sons are settled in school and taking GCSEs next summer. "We've been here six years and the landlord is fantastic, the rent's not gone up. But you never know what might happen in the future."
So what can be done to improve life for Britain's growing band of renters? Shelter's Roger Harding said: "In the short term, we've got to sort out the rental market and make it a more suitable place for families. Right now landlords can raise the rent at any time, and evict with just two months' notice. For families with children, this means huge upheaval if they need to move schools, and then there's the worry that it will happen again anyway. Shelter's proposing a new stable rental contract that will give renters five years in their home and some predictability when it comes to rent rises. In the long term, we've got to tackle the shortage of affordable homes by building more."
As planning minister Nick Boles discovered last week, when he talked about building 100,000 new homes on two million acres of countryside, building more houses can be controversial. Housing minister Mark Prisk told the Observer that the government was offering £10bn in loan guarantees and a £200m equity fund to encourage greater institutional investment in building homes specifically for private rent. He added: "For those looking to buy, our FirstBuy scheme offers a valuable alternative to the bank of mum and dad while the NewBuy scheme enables people to buy newly built homes with a fraction of the deposit they would normally require.
"But we also need to build more affordable homes, which is why despite the need to cut the deficit we're investing £19.5bn public and private funding into an affordable housing programme set to deliver 170,000 new homes."
This week Labour's shadow housing minister, Jack Dromey, will launch a wide-ranging review into the sector, canvassing interested parties to come up with ways to make it better for both landlords and tenants. He said: "It is true that housing has not been sufficiently centre stage for a very long time. That has now changed. Housing will be centre stage for Labour in the runup to the election. There are a lot of good landlords but there are major problems of stability, affordability and quality."
A report to be published this week by Labour highlights the situation in other countries where "private-sector tenants have greater certainty in their home but also retain flexibility if they want to move". In Germany, France and Spain renters have longer-term contracts and rent can only be increased by an inflationary index.
All those renters in Bristol will be watching with interest.

RENT IN NUMBERS
Patterns of renting and buying in Europe (2010) and the US (2011):
■ In Germany, 53.2% of the population are homeowners – and they are evenly split between those with mortgages and those who own outright. Of the remainder who rent, five out of six do so at market rates.
■ In France, 38% of the population live in rented homes – almost half of those in reduced-price or free accommodation (ie, social housing).
■ Switzerland has more renters, 55.7%, than owner-occupiers.
■ In Romania, 97.5% own – and only one in 162 of those has an outstanding loan.
■ In the US, 64.6% of occupied homes are owner-occupied, 35.4% rented.
Source: Eurostat 2010; US Census Bureau 2011


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MessagePosté le: Dim 9 Déc - 22:01 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

BagehotThe stuck societyBritain has become a country where nothing much is changing
Dec 8th 2012 | from the print edition






IN BRITISH English one standard response to the question, “What’s going on?” is: “Nothing much.” This is either a way of closing down a conversation that risks becoming interesting, or a snap assessment of a life that seems unremarkable even to the person living it. The difficulty, for attuned natives and bemused foreigners alike, is knowing which of these meanings applies.


.../...


Nothing will come of nothing
There are some signs that Britain is already becoming a little Japanese—and not just because it is now popular to watch women in bikinis eating live cockroaches on prime-time television. For example, the trend for children to live at home with their parents has accelerated. In Japan half of those between 20 and 34 are fridge raiders; in Britain the proportion has hit one in three for men and one in six for women, with an overall increase of 6% this year alone. A supply of people able to work for less than their cost of living gives parsimonious firms a convenient pool of temporary workers. This is how two-tier labour markets, with a group of insiders enjoying job protection and a group of outsiders with none, are born. Undoing the situation can be impossible.
One result of this holding pattern is likely to be even greater frustration with politicians, who nevertheless find themselves prevented from shaking things up by society’s entrenched winners. Successive governments in Japan have found it so hard to push through change, when faced with well-organised groups who stand to lose out, that they have given up trying altogether. Something similar happened in Italy, another long-static country, until the bond market sacked Silvio Berlusconi last year.
To adapt a more noble Italian: if Britain wants things to stay as they are, things will have to change. For the alternative is not the indefinite continuation of today, as over time a stuck society will mutate and decline of its own accord. That might be a less troubling outlook than riots and protests. But five more years of it will still alter the country in ways that are undesirable.
Economist.com/blogs/Bagehot

from the print edition | Britain


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MessagePosté le: Lun 10 Déc - 05:22 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

From UK 9:22pmUK told it cannot pick and choose EU lawsCrime opt-outs would need 130 votes, says commissioner

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MessagePosté le: Lun 10 Déc - 05:32 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

FISCALITÉ Lundi10 décembre 2012

Etats-Unis: le malaise fiscal des richesPour une taxation des riches. Aujourd’hui, même les républicains envisagent de briser ce tabou. (Jacquelyn Martin/ Keystone)


La fin des exonérations fiscales pour les riches n’est plus taboue. La Grande-Bretagne fait un pas en arrière. La France menace


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MessagePosté le: Lun 10 Déc - 05:35 (2012)    Sujet du message: Austérité en Europe Répondre en citant

FRANCE 
Bercy fait face à des rentrées de la TVA en baisse
09/12 | 21:24 | Etienne Lefebvre

Le ralentissement de la consommation met en péril l'objectif 2012 de recettes en matière de TVA.


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